Nail onychomycosis: treatment, symptoms and pictures
Onychomycosis is one of the most common fungal infections of nails. About 10% of the world's population suffer from this disease. Interestingly, the toenails are more often affected than the arms.
In most cases, onychomycosis, which begins to destroy the nail plate caused by dermatophytes. Can also develop Candida onychomycosis nails. Modern medicine has noted the increasing number of infections by fungi and yeast Candida.
You can also get an infection through the blood. This usually happens when the nail is injured phalanx. Such a scenario infected with onychomycosis of nails possible and in patients with immunodeficiency, diseases of the endocrine system. Long-term use of corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs also contributes to the development of the disease.
Poor circulation in the extremities, heart failure, hypertension, varicose veins, occlusive disease and other disorders of importance in the pathogenesis of onychomycosis. It is noticed that in recent years has increased the number of young patients infected with onychomycosis. Predisposing factors to development of onychomycosis can be:
- Exogenous and endogenous hypercortisolism;
- Disorders of the sex glands;
- Use of corticosteroids;
- Receiving cytostatic drugs;
- HIV infection;
- Noratropine form is characterized by the appearance of white and yellow specks on the affected area of the nail. Breach of nail shapes is not observed.
Atrophic form of onychomycosis manifests itself by a strong thinning of the nail, the possibility of delamination and partial destruction.
In hypertrophic form of onychomycosis, the affected nail becomes yellow and thickens. In the early stages of the disease, the nail may not change shape, but later can flake off.
European and American medicine shared forms of onychomycosis of nails given the options of infection in the patient's body. Vary:
- The proximal form;
- White superficial onychomycosis;
- The distal form;
- Total dystrophic form.
White superficial onychomycosis nails are almost always caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Often, the manifestation of infection, like leukonychia, so need expert advice to determine the exact disease.
The most common forms of onychomycosis of the fingernails are the distal anddistal-lateral form. As a rule, the infection is Trichophyton rubrum. These forms can manifest itself as yellow patches on the affected areas and accompanied by hyperkeratosis.
The proximal form is less common. First on the nail there are areas of changed colors, and then comes the peeling of the affected nail.
Total dystrophic form occurs against a background of other forms of the disease, causing a holistic infection of the nail plate, often causing the destruction.
Diagnosis of the disease
Diagnosis of onychomycosis of the toenails is often dependent on laboratory tests. In modern methods of diagnosis, the doctor relies on mycological, microbiological and histological examination. Choice studies for the diagnosis of the disease contribute to the clinical manifestations on the affected place. Don't forget that some skin diseases often have similar symptoms. For example:
- Lichen planus;
The treatment of the disease
Treatment of disease can be external and system. The outer method of treatment of nails is effective only in the case when the disease is just beginning to show themselves, and the focus of infection is small. Treatment includes antifungal drugs topical use. Otherwise, when there is hyperkeratosis and more than 1/3 of the nail exposed to the disease, applies a systematic method of treatment of nails. For proper diagnosis, fluconazole is prescribed for the treatment of onychomycosis in the feet and hands. To use the drug once a week on 150 mg. For treatment of the hands duration of treatment is 6 months, stop treatment should be carried out for 6-12 months.
It is desirable to remove the infected nail using a surgical scalpel. This can lead to chronic course of the disease and the occurrence of pterygium. There are many effective antifungals that accumulate in the affected areas, and conduct successful treatment of fungal infection.
Along with systemic therapy, the complex can be used outdoor. This uses antifungal drugs in the form of ointments, creams, and special varnishes.
Effective representatives are allylamine (lamisil, naftifin, drug zistan), ash (clotrimazole, Candide, canesten), isoconazole, miconazole, batrafen, amorolfine, etc.
Antifungal therapy is necessary to handle the shoes. The duration of treatment depends on the individual case of the disease, its occurrence, intensityand lesions infection.