Cyst of the brain in newborn infants: causes, treatment, implications
Cyst called the accumulation of fluid in the hollow region of dead area in the brain. The cyst may appear in any part of the brain as a single or multiple formation. According to statistics, about 40% of infants born with a diagnosis of "cyst in the brain".
Usually, the problem is revealed by medical workers at the stage of development of the child during pregnancy, but sometimes there are cases that the cyst in the brain of the fetus at birth disappears by itself without outside interference.
Cyst of the brain is not a tumor disease and it does not bear direct threat of life of the child. However, cystic formation having a negative impact on the development process of the fetus. The presence of this disease can result in negative consequences, so it is impossible to leave the cyst without any medical attention.
A brain cyst can be formed for many different reasons. First, the tumor occurs due to congenital abnormalities of the Central nervous system, and also due to post-Natal and birth trauma.
In addition, the development of cysts provoke migrated meningitis and encephalitis all forms, bleeding in the brain or the herpes virus.
Pathology begins to develop under the influence of a lack of cerebral circulation, which leads to deterioration of nutrition of cells with oxygen and essential vital substances. regarding viral causes, useful information, what is
Arachnoid cyst is different from other types of the fact that it is capable of rapid growth, which leads to compression of the tissues and subsequent complications. This kind of cyst is more common in male babies.
Sublingually cysts can create serious challenges for child development. The emergence of sublingually cyst has an effect of insufficient blood circulation in the brain, in its ventricles, which causes oxygen starvation and tissue death.
After that, develop a cavity, so you need to examine the child several times a year. For examination used magnetic resonance imaging.
If you are registering an increase in cavity pressure of the liquid, it can negatively affect the surrounding tissue, since they alter its structure and position.
MRI can also be discovered and Also disrupted senses of smell, hearing and sight. The child becomes drowsy, anxious, he starts insomnia and lack of coordination of movements with hypotonia or hypertonicity of muscles.
A cyst of large size is almost a guarantee of increased intracranial pressure, accompanied by a sensation of noise and pulsation in the head. A child may be sudden syncope, seizures,tremor, regurgitation and vomiting. Often swells and pulsing Fontanelle, and numb limbs. The child may have epilepsy and sometimes paralysis of the limbs.
The severity and size of the cyst depends on the localization. For example, if the cyst formed in the occipital region of the head — this leads to vision disorders: diplopia (double vision), loss of visual acuity and the emergence of feelings of cloths. The development of cysts in the cerebellar part directly affects motor coordination.
Cavity near the pituitary gland can adversely affect the functioning of the endocrine system and sexual formation of the child. In the most serious cases can stitches in the bones of the skull, resulting in a strong delayed mental and physical development.
In children under one year of age the Fontanelle is not closed, therefore, the presence of cysts determined by ultrasound diagnosis of neurosonography. This study shows premature infants and immunocompromised children who are at risk for the appearance of the cyst. Definitely need to learn on the subject of cysts of children who have suffered hypoxia and resuscitation at the time of their birth.
To make an accurate diagnosis in the later stages of pregnant women is carried out computer and magnetic resonance tomography. For the detection of circulatory disorders and infections that led to the appearance of the cyst, you may need additional study. Your doctor may order a Doppler ultrasound of the blood vessels.
This is necessary if you need to detect the narrowing of blood vessels or other vascular pathology. Also conduct blood tests for cholesterol, clotting, infections, and autoimmune diseases. Study the work of the heart and set the blood pressure level.
A brain cyst in a child, treatment
Treatment is conducted individually, depending on the nature of cavitary education of the child. If there is a cyst of a vascular plexus, it requires no special medical or surgical treatment, as these cysts disappear on their own after some time.
However, you need to know about the need for timely eliminate inflammation and infection, which led to the development of cysts.
And sublingually arachnoid cysts require magnetic resonance studies and ongoing monitoring. If the cyst is large and prone to increase can be appointed surgery.
The intervention is radical and palliative:
- Radical surgical intervention. The method consists in trepanation of the skull and remove the cyst with walls and intracavitary fluid. The operation is performed open brain, sothe level of trauma is very high, it shows only in extreme cases.
- Palliative surgery. Under palliative operation meant surgery, that is the elimination of the cyst through a shunt system. This method is less dangerous and traumatic than conventional surgery. But it should be noted that there is a risk of infection due to long-term presence of a shunt in the skull. Using this method you can only remove the fluid from the cyst, but not to remove itself cystic formation.
Modern medicine offers another way of solving the problem – endoscopy – removal of the cyst through a puncture in the skull. It is a safe solution with low injury rate, however, the procedure must be performed only by a physician with high surgical skills because endoscopy requires precision and application of years of experience.
Successful getting rid of the cyst depends primarily on the correct and timely diagnosis. If the cystic cavity is discovered in time, it has a small size and are not much concerned about the child, then there is every chance for a favorable resolution of the treatment process.
The same basic methods could be the same as those used in the treatment of cysts in the spine. If the cyst is growing rapidly, it leads to compression of brain tissue, which in any case increases intracranial pressure, which can cause complications, such as bleeding in the brain.
Here the success of treatment will depend on the timeliness of surgical intervention. If the cyst removed before the onset of any complications, ill effects should not be observed.
Complications on the background of cystic masses.
When the cyst is particularly prone to increase, is detected by the doctors later, it can lead to irreversible abnormalities in the brain tissues of the child. The problem expressed in the hearing, smell, sight and coordination of movements.
May appear complications, which are difficult to treat, for example, hydrocephalus is a buildup in the ventricles of the brain a certain amount of liquid, which subsequently leads to disruption of the functioning of the Central nervous system.
Sometimes the rapid development and increase in the size of cystic masses is reflected in the extensive brain hemorrhage that can result in severe complications and fatal outcome.
That is why it is extremely important permanent to carry out regular examination of infants, especially if the baby is at risk.