Human papillomavirus infection: causes and symptoms in men and women
Today the increasing distribution receives an infection caused by human papilloma virus. Primarily, this is because the direct link with the symptoms of cancer in the cervix with persistence has been proven. So, the continued existence of the causative agent directly in the female body life-threatening.
Diagnostic and therapeutic practice about ten years ago in the case of suspected serious pathology of the cervix, presumably associated with HPV infection was uncertain, but today made a decisive step in this direction on the part of practical medicine.
Through the use and study of international surveillance protocols in the area of the cervix was performed in different stages of the survey, different deadlines depending on the country, while in the need of manifestation of oncological diseases and addiction symptoms strains of HPV have held a number of clinical studies, the results which have been obtained positive results.
What is human papillomavirus infection
Papillomavirus infection or as it is commonly called Such a mechanism works in 4 of 5 cases of getting HPV directly into the woman's body, age younger than 30 years during the period ranging from 8 months to 2 years. In this case, there is no reference to age and the above readings are not reliable. However, scientists have proved that the aging of the organism, the probability of savelkinskiy strain is reduced, thereby increasing the risk of cancer development in the cervix in view of achieving its peak at the age of 45 years.
This fact is explained by the fact that all screening tests in many countries include patients 30 years of age, while the tactics of examination of patients with detected HPV infection younger age is considered to be more gentle in comparison with older women.
Now a little about the 1/5 of women who are not lucky enough to get rid of the virus itself. It turns out that in the body these women are all conditions for a seamless and painless development of the disease to the most dangerous stage. As a rule, the most dangerous group on the basis of an early onset of sexual life, the constant change of sexual partners, even in the case of maintaining the conditions of protection.
The fact that in this case the infection can even occur in the case of ordinary skin contact with the skin in the area of the mucous component. In this case, the conversation about the various genital contact is not even a question. In addition,risk factor are considered chronic inflammatory diseases in the cervix, contributing to the introduction of the virus by altering the local immune system.
Most at risk are smokers, and pregnant young women. Scientists have proved the value of a large number of births and abortions as events leading to trauma to the cervix. Moreover, the frequency of HPV-carriage in relation to cancer of the cervix in the Muslim countries is lower in comparison with other regions, but this can be explained by features of traditional hygiene.
The incidence of cancer tumors in the cervix is also low in the Western developed countries, which only confirms the efficiency is quite costly budget screening studies aimed primarily at identifying HPV as well as precancerous conditions of the cervix.
He is a pathological process only starts at the moment when the infection begins to build in the immediate chromosomal apparatus of cells, which is considered a prerequisite for successful breeding.
Clinically this fact is manifested by epithelial dysplasia in the cervix, whose severity gradually progresses in the absence of adequate treatment.
It should be noted that the process of intracellular changes, beginning with mild dysplasia, which can move and harm of such tactics. This is related to the fact that the purpose of embedding infection in the genome of the cells with subsequent development of the pathological process requires a sufficient (threshold) concentration, component, typically, 10*5 copies of the strain in a 1 milliliter sample. Scientists believe that the lower the concentration of the infection is not able to ensure the full development of dysplasia and cervical cancer, resulting in always ends Carolinensiel.
Therefore, the identification of the patient such subthreshold clinically significant concentration of the virus does not carry practical sense, however, can cause extremely negative psychological consequences, for example, when the woman notified of carcinogenic action of HPV, aware of itself as a potential carrier, but has no idea on how should you interpret such a situation.
Often this is exacerbated by the lack of awareness of this issue by some medical representatives, whose authoritative opinion on the availability of obscure diseases can aggravate and prolong the associated with the process of examination stress.
Treatment papillovirus infection
Upon detection of a carrier of HPV subsequent tacticsis determined based on the age of the patient taking into account the results of cytological examination of material taken from the cervix. however, just note that the indicators cytological smear taken from the cervix, as well as checking the presence and condition of HPV. You should realize that the probability of self-destruction infection is very high! In the case of carriage of HPV along with abnormal changes in the cervix, which was proven cytologically and colposcopically, such expectant management may be acceptable only in adolescents or pregnant women, and only in the case of moderately expressed changes.
The most radical option of treatment of precancerous pathology of the cervix is considered the excision of the modified area by applying high temperature electric or radio-wave knife. A similar procedure is performed in practice under local anesthesia and in terms of advice, but in some cases can be treated with short-term intravenous anesthesia. Received issecheny plot must necessarily be sent for histological examination.
In addition, doctors may prescribe medications based on interferon that stimulates local immunity and accelerate not only the elimination of the virus but also the healing of the cervix due to the dissection.
From the point of view of evidence-based medicine is considered justified only local (genital) use of such drugs. Undoubtedly, radical surgical treatment cannot guarantee the absence of consequences of women who plan to soon pregnancy.
Excision of tissue in the cervix, particularly the cervical canal, may, in the case of a subsequent pregnancy to be fraught with isthmic-cervical insufficiency, when the muscular part of the uterine mouth will not be able to adequately hold the fertilized egg. And that, you know, in most cases leads to termination of pregnancy and almost always requires surgical correction.
Therefore, in young women, who were planning a pregnancy this treatment should be done only under strict indications. It should be noted that in such a group the alternative would be the destruction of the pathological focus through the use of cryosurgical method or use of carbon dioxide laser. Tissue trauma in this case is much smaller and therefore the effect on potential fertility would be less disappointing.
However, a significant drawback of such methods is the inability to survey altered tissue, that in the event of inadequate assessment of the condition of the cervix to the processoperations or profound defeat, when to inspect or correct a swab is not possible, can cause fatal errors.
In any case, the exit from such situation exists, and it is quite simple – it will require a mandatory biopsy, in other words, obtaining a small piece of cloth modified through the use of special tools. This procedure is carried out before cryo or laser treatment, whereas after obtaining the opinion with regards to the high quality of the process without the presence of health risk, it is already possible to perform sparing treatment.
Despite radical surgical treatment, the probability of relapse. This is often due to a practical failure to implement recommendations of the surgeon within post-operative period and continued a very active sexual lifestyle, which is a fact re-infection. In other words, treatment in such a case, spending will be more difficult, while the risk of ascending infection of aggression against authority.
A significant breakthrough in the prevention of human papillomavirus infection was observed in the last decade. For example, in 2005 clinical studies of preventive vaccines, helping to get rid of the infection 6,11, 16, 18 types showed their effectiveness, with the consequence that the vaccine came available for sale in almost all countries of the world.
In addition, in developed countries, the vaccine was included in the state program of immunization in other words, all the stages of treatment through the introduction of the vaccine was conducted absolutely free of charge at the expense of the state budget. Vaccine papillovirus infection was obtained by genetic engineering, which is why it does not contain in its composition of any live, dead or weakened viral particles, that is, infection with the virus does not get called.
At this stage of time, research continues in the field of cross-efficiency in relation to other vysokovitaminnym types of the virus, taking into account possible therapeutic action. In addition, still not addressed is the question of the importance of repetition of vaccination after the expiry of its guaranteed effects.
Modern vaccines have a validity with a duration of 5 years.