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Burn disease: course, treatment, stages and degrees

If the patient receives an extensive and deep burns, may develop clinically severe General reaction of the whole organism. The beginning of the reaction expected from the first hour of burns and continues for some time even after full recovery of the epidermis.

The total disorder of the body can be serious and severe so that they are able not only leads to severe complications, but also to death.

We can say that this disease in children is a combination of all clinical symptoms and reactions of the body, plus the disruption of internal organs that occur when receiving skin burns or burns to internal organs.

The first signs of a burn disease can occur if patients are superficial burns of the skin, in the amount of 25% and full thickness burns more than 10 %.

Causes of Burn disease

The main factor that determines the severity of the disease and its outcome and prognosis is an area of deep burns. In addition, great importance is the age of the patient, so burn disease so dangerous in the case of children.

For children deep lose even 5 % of the body surface, can lead to death. There are several theories of the origin of burn disease

The first theory explains the development of a common disturbance in the body and death, the fact that during the burn begins development of neuro-reflex shock, which is directly linked to strong pain irritation and fear of the child.

The second theory relates the development of symptoms of burn disease with the fact that there is a strong loss of plasma, which leads to thickening of the blood. The result is a violation of the process of circulation, some doctors believe that high temperature, which yields a thermal burn, at the same time also disrupts the function of red blood cells.

Symptoms of burn disease

During burn disease the pathological process involves the peripheral and Central nervous system, which undergo significant changes in functionality and morphology.

In the early hours in burn disease develops shock, a quarter of patients can be diagnosed agitation, which appears following the shock and leads to retardation. Deep reflexes increased pain sensitivity unfired part of the skin is reduced.

In the background burns intoxication, and infection may develop meningitis. In addition, purulent meningitis due to contact or hematogenous spread to the meninges of the child. Perhaps the manifestation of an abscess, as the result of a subdural complications of burns the bones of the cranial vault.

Among psychiatric complications, which may be a continuation of complicationsburn disease, is dominated by two States: delirious and delirious-oneiric.

One of the symptoms of burn disease may be the development of burn encephalopathy, which develops in toxic infectious period. Right now there is exhaustion, which is complicated by the brain lesions that bears a non-inflammatory character.

With the development of burn encephalopathy major violations, it is the permeability of vessels, oedema of the substance of the brain and hypoxia. The greatest clinical importance are the following symptoms of burn encephalopathy:

  • amaurotics-convulsive,
  • hyperkinetic,
  • delirious-amential,
  • scattered organic symptoms
  • asthenic,
  • vegetative-trophic disorders.

The nerve trunks, which are close to the surface can be damaged at the very moment the thermal effect on the skin. Most often, when you burn lose get peroneal, ulnar and median nerve.

After a month of burn disease there are various passages both single and multiple. Among them we can mention:

  • toxic
  • infectious-allergic neuritis.

And there is a neuritis, caused by the proliferation of necrotic tissue on the surface of the nerve trunk.

What happens when you burn disease

The degree of severity of the clinical syndromes of burn disease depends on the body's response to an extensive and deep destruction. Burns also has the value of the localization of burn wounds and General condition of the patient. Severe form of burn patients starts with superficial burns which the child exceed 2% of the skin.

The severity and complications of burn disease directly depend on the area and depth of lesions of the epidermis. The main role is given to the nature of the burn.

If there is wet necrosis in the area of damage, and there is no clear distinction of the dead and the still living tissue, the likelihood of resorption of toxic substances is quite high. In these cases, the suppuration in the affected area and always accompanied by General phenomena, even if the burn is shallow


The nature of treatment of burn disease depends on the phase. The basis of treatment is immediate compensation for loss of the vascular bed of the liquid, the so-called transfusion therapy. Thanks to her, is the restoration of intravascular volume and microcirculatory vessels, as well as maintaining vital body functions.

Note that in the treatment of shock needs not only patients who are already in a state of burn shock, but also those patients who have this condition can threaten in the near future. The main condition for a successful shock treatment is earlyprevention and relief of the basic properties of the body. Here you can recall that you need to know and Transfusion therapy is always done with anesthesia, for this purpose, promedol, along with this used administered antihistamines, and vitamins B and C.

In severe case of burn disease, the child uses a substitution therapy, which uses steroid hormones and drugs that have diuretic properties, solution of mannitol, lasix. Antibiotics can be used only if there are accompanying diseases, strep throat or pneumonia.

As we have mentioned above, at the beginning of the burn disease the absorption from the tissues is slowed down dramatically, so all the above products and solutions are introduced to a patient intravenously.

In addition, there is an urgent need for the prevention of tetanus, which explains the fact that the Bacillus of tetanus is always in the ambient air or on objects that come into contact with a burn wound on the patient and is able to penetrate into the body.

On average in the period of burn shock, and this is the first two days after burn, the child may be introduced to 6 liters of fluid. A positive result of treatment of burn disease is manifested in the restoration of normal urine output, and stabilization of all hemodynamic variables. If the burn is not large and does not claim to burn disease, you still need to understand. what happens when you burn lose, and this will be useful material — a Burn in a child: what to do.