Microsporia of the skin: diseases of smooth skin
Microsporia is a contagious infectious disease that provokes a fungus of the genus Microsporum. The fungus infects the scalp, skin and hair area sections of the skin (mustache, beard, and nails of the foot and the skin of the palms.
The disease is common almost everywhere, but most often it is registered in Europe (Western part), South-East Asia, the Caucasus, Central Asian countries, USA and Japan.
Age factors defeat
Microspores can affect children in the age period from 1 to 13 years and adult women. The number of cases in adults is low and is approximately 10-12%.
During puberty, changes in the composition of the secretion of the sebaceous and sweat glands in the skin. It appears a lot of fatty acids, which are harmful for the fungus.
Doctors talk about risk, which is most exposed to infection microsporia. The risk group includes young women and children, including those with endocrine diseases (diabetes or hypothyroidism).
Often infected people with low immunity and deficiency. Of course, in the risk group consist of children coming from families with inferior housing conditions.
Microsporia can be completely cured, in other words, the outcome of the disease is most often favorable. If microsporia not treated, by the beginning of puberty it runs independently.
Microsporia transmitted from sick animals, is characterized by seasonality, that is the highest number of cases it happens in early autumn or late summer.
Why do I get microsporia
Microsporia is generated by a fungus of the genus Microsporum, environmental symptom of this fungus is subdivided into several varieties:
- Bestiality – fungi that are parasitic on animals. They are called distortium Microsporum, Microsporum canis and Microsporum equinum.
- Anthropophily – fungi that are parasitic on man. Isolated Microsporum ferrugineum and Microsporum audoinii.
- Goofily – fungi that infest the soil. The most famous species is Microsporum gypseum.
In Russia the greatest distribution was received two types of fungi is Microsporum canis and Microsporum ferrugineum.
The most contagious fungus antropophilic fungus Microsporum ferrugineum. When antropogennoi microsporia source of infection is a sick man acts and objects which he uses, for example, linens, personal hygiene items, toys or stationery.
Zoofilia microsporia is transmitted through contact with animals – hamsters, rats, Guinea pigs, cats and dogs. A person can be infected and direct contact, and through things that have fur or scales of the skin of the patient animal.
The microspores are distinguished bythe exciter is zoofilia, geophilidae and anthropophilia microsporia. Localization subdivide surface microsporia scalp, superficial microsporia smooth skin, and deep suppurative microsporia.
Symptoms of Microsporum
Microsporia is in incubation period from 3 to 5 days. First, the pathogen penetrates the skin, and at this point the skin appears red spot.
With the surface of the skin microsporia penetrates the hair follicle (follicle), and from there the fungus gets into the hair. Around the hair there is swelling, which increases in size and becomes reddish. The inflammatory process is weakly expressed in the foci of infection microsporia.
Further symptoms microsporia depends on the localization of the pathogen. If there is contamination of the surface with microsporia of the scalp, there are individual pockets of infection, which have a circular shape with a diameter of 2-5 cm.
The centers from each other are clearly separated, with no tendency to merge. On top of the skin over infected areas covered with a large number of whitish scales, as if it was the Spores of the fungus surround the base of the hair like a clutch. Spores densely adjoin to each other. The scabs and skin flakes mushroom looks like thin branching strands of mycelium with partitions.
The cultivation of the pathogen on nutrient media. This is a fairly complex method that takes time. The diagnosis is not applied very widely. The method is important in tracking the spread of the pathogen and to assess the frequency of occurrence of the pathogen in different countries.
A swab is taken from the source of infection and is applied on a nutrient medium. In the environment of the pathogen is from 7 to 10 days, after which studied different structure and form of the pathogen.
So, Microsporura canis has a wide, round, fluffy colonies are gray or yellowish-pink color. Microsporum ferrugineum with a branched colonies of rusty hue. From Microsporum gypseum colonies have a pinkish color to the edge is replaced by a flat, smooth and velvety texture white. There is also need to know how to distinguish between fungal white spots, and it is possible to study article — in the local treatment, different methods are used. For example, a patient once a week shave or wash your hair twice a week with soap and water.
In addition, lubricate the foci iodine solution or rubbing antifungal ointment, for example, sulfur-salicylic ointment, ointment Wilkinson, lamisil, ketoconazole, clotrimazole.
Complications of Microsporum are pustular skin lesions and cellulitis of the subcutaneous fat layer. Can also occur hair loss, as a negative consequence of the disease. It should also be understood that the fungus apparently can recall cuttingringworm in children, but it will not be.
To avoid being infected with microsporia should adhere to simple preventive rules. First of all, it is important to observe personal hygiene. If there is a suspected infection microsporia pet, you need to go to the vet.
The person who is sick with microsporia should not be allowed in kindergartens, schools, swimming pools and sports clubs.
If contact with Pets, washing hands should be mandatory. Children who recover from microspores, are under medical supervision for 1 year, they must pass a test tests for mushrooms.