What to do if you burn in a child: degrees of burns in children
Timely proper first aid for burns is very important for both adults and children. Posters in clinics literally full of child injuries. In every fifth case we are talking about the burn, so it's a fairly common phenomenon and that's what we will talk today, in relation to assisting young patient during pregnancy.
Many dangers can happen to a child already at home. The child can grab hot to burn my fingers with boiling water or play with matches. At worst, it is fraught with burns of varying degrees. While it is important not to get lost, and know in advance how to behave in each case. First of all, it is important to know what exactly are the burns.
Classification of burns
Burns are usually classified into several main types:
- Thermal burns occur when contact of the skin with boiling water, melted butter or grease, open flame, hot metal. Are classified as the most common but not the most simple.
- Chemical burns arising from exposure to chemicals (alkalis, acids). In everyday life almost never occur, especially if we talk about the child, which and nowhere particularly to contact with acid or alkali.
- Electric burns, the cause of which is an electric current. The most common reason why children get them, is contact with faulty electrical appliances or their improper use.
- Radiation burns, the appearance of which is associated with the sunlight, here the reason lies in the carelessness of the parents who allowed the child a long time to be under the influence of sunlight.
Severity of burns
In addition, burns are categorized by severity, which is associated with deep lesions of the skin:
- Burn of first degree — damage to the superficial layer of the skin, i.e., epidermis. The burn is red, is characterized by pain, swelling and burning sensation.
Disappear after 2 days. Damaged cells after a certain time are shed, passing with a healthy skin without a trace. This is the simplest degree burns do not require even seeking medical help.
- Burn of II degree — there is the appearance of bubbles. They are formed quickly and immediately filled with a liquid. The formation of new bubbles, possibly for some time, as well as the increase in the size of the old one.
The top layer of skin (epidermis) dies completely. The process of healing and recovery is delayed for a few days. The burn marks can last up to several months. To avoid infection you need to carefully monitor the cleanliness of the affected area.
- Burns IIIdegree — deep, very painful, skin lesions. If you've had prolonged contact with oil or hot liquid, the formation of bubbles of large size with a thick shell, where the liquid content is in the blood. In conjunction with hot dry objects or flames on the surface is the formation of a thick peel.
This type of burn is divided into the following subtypes:
- IIIa — burns with preservation of the papillary layer of the skin;
- IIIb — burns with the full damage of the papillary layer of the skin;
- IIIb — burns do not heal for a long time and leaving visible scars;
- IIIa — burns, the healing without scarring.
- Burns IV degree — damage to all layers of the skin, subcutaneous fat, tendon, muscle, bone and charring of tissue.
This classification is mainly used for thermal burns. If the burn was caused by something other then the symptoms will be different.
When you receive a chemical burn important substances that caused the damage (alkalis, acids, lime, salts of heavy metals), the degree of concentration and exposure time.
Chemical burns by severity is similar to heat, but the bubbles are formed much less frequently.
Acidic and electrical burns
When you receive acid burns III-IV the formation of dry dense scab. Occurs coagulation proteins, slowing down the penetration of the acid into the dermal layers more deeply.
Upon receipt of alkali burns of the eschar is loose and soft. Fats Malaysia alkali, a dissolution of protein and easy penetration into the interior.
If the fluid is in chemical burn was accidentally consumed, it may be poisoning. Healing chemical burns takes longer than compared to heat, with the result that leave deep scars.
Electrical burns occur during the conversion of electrical energy into heat. The most important reason is a violation of the rules of operation safety precautions when using appliances.
Burns from electricity are necessarily profound, and the degree of damage is directly related to the voltage and amperage. High voltage leads to extensive burns. A significant strength of the current causes convulsions and spasms, when the victim can't let go of the current source independently, calling for help.
Great attention should be given to place the input / output electric current. The most harmful for the organism is the current which passed through the heart and the brain.
Radiation burns received in the home, are extremely rare. A type of radiation is a sunburn. Cause is exposure to UV rays. This means that to beyou can burn even when swimming in winter or under water.
First aid for thermal burns
- Source of burn should be removed as soon as possible.
- Drenched with boiling water the clothes must be cut, break or remove. If clothing is on fire, should be extinguished with water or dense tissue, but, in no case, not bare hands.
- Remnants of clothing stuck to the skin should not be removed, because the burn hurt even more.
- Rings, watches, bracelets able to prevent the free circulation of fluid and blood in the tissues, so they need to be removed.
- The affected area should be cooled in cold water, applying an ice pack, or to direct the cold air.
- The burnt spot is not blurred!
- Drugs for pain are taken strictly according to instructions.
- The source of the lesion should be immediately removed.
- Clothing with the affected area will be correctly removed.
- I cannot clean the wound, bubbles, including tense, do not open.
- On the burn, we have to put a clean cloth or dry sterile cloth, does not grease it.
- Pain medication is given according to the instructions.
- Be sure to call an ambulance or doctor.
If the surface of the burn is small, it is recommended outpatient treatment, on our website there is a wonderful article about how the reaction generates a lot of heat. more information is presented in the article — When a minor area of the burn you can do without medical aid, it is important to know how is the treatment of burn blister. Most importantly, do not forget to change the bandage regularly and watch for bubbles. The appearance of pus and redness of the skin is possible to speak about the inflammatory process that will require immediate professional assistance.
If the area of burns is quite extensive, you need to call an ambulance, go to the nearest emergency room or surgical Department.
Prevention of burns in children
Responsible for the safety of children, both at home and during leisure activities lies entirely with the parents. No containers with boiling water and hot liquids at the edge of the table or plate. The temperature of the food suitable for a child, should not be too high.
It is desirable that the child was not in the kitchen, period cooking, touch the hot kettle or oven, to play active games.
Matches, flammable liquids, lighters, and chemicals should be hidden in inaccessible location. Even an adult needs to get all this out with difficulty. The main thing — not personal comfort, and above all, the health and safety of the child.
The outlet needs to be installed plugs. The child should not touch them and play with them and to stay in the room alone withelectrical devices.
Up to a point the children have no fear and dominated by curiosity. Therefore, the prohibition to play with dangerous things must be repeated several times to achieve the desired effect.
But if the trouble is not over, baby — no fuss and panic. In addition to helping to quiet the baby, because he's so scared. Let the kid hear, that all will be well, certainly praise him for his courage and resistance to pain.
Any trouble is easier to prevent than to liquidate consequences. And this is doubly true if we are talking about children's burns.