Measles: disease description, symptoms and treatment
Measles – an acute infectious disease characterized by rash in the form of papules, lesions of the upper respiratory tract and strongest signs of intoxication.
Measles may vary into two types: typical and atypical this disease. In addition, the incubation period of the disease lasts up to 2 weeks, and it is clarified that if the patient before infection took a course of immunoglobulin treatment, the incubation period increases to 21 days.
The development of the typical measles also divided into several types:
- The period of the rash.
- The period of pigmentation.
At the beginning of the first period of development of the disease patient has a fever that reaches 39,0°C. Marked the beginning of a cold, the color change of the eyelids, photophobia. Against this background, there is a dry cough. In some cases diagnostics of purulent masses from the eyes.
Changes and psychological condition of the patient, marked irritability, General lethargy and apathy, it can cause insomnia and sleep disturbance.
Loss of appetite leads to the fact that the patient begins a little to eat, he had nausea develops into vomiting. Sometimes there may be loss of consciousness.
In the early periods of lesions on the mucous membranes of the lips and cheeks begin to appear grayish white papules with a diameter of 1 mm. Spots can be detected for several days before the rash and disappear on the first day of skin rash. This period can last up to 7 days.
Skin rash may be noted that the skin will remain unchanged. The first papules are formed behind the ears and on the nose, they look like small pink spots, which are grow rapidly both in size and in number. 24 hours later the rash may completely cover the face and neck and start to be localized on the back and chest.
After 48 hours the rash completely covers the torso, and by the end of 72 hours and covers have feet with hands. The rash has no precise and versatile appearance, it can be as rich and poor.
If we are talking about uncomplicated diseases, approximately 72 hours after the rash appears on the skin starts the period of pigmentation. Here it is possible to note General health of the patient. Gradually decreasing the temperature, no cough, has a good appetite, no nausea. A rash on the skin gradually changes color, getting dark brown. The duration of the last period for measles can be up to six weeks.
It should be noted that while pigmentation, the patient can experience neurological symptoms and signs, including convulsions, seizures, tremor of extremities. However, all these manifestations are strictly temporary in nature and disappear afterrecovery.
Forms of the disease
The healing process of measles generally takes place in the home. With the exception of severe cases and when it is impossible in house conditions to organise a simple care for patients.
A room with a patient should be systematically ventilated, the room must be kept clean and not be heavily obfuscated.
As for the bed mode, then it will need to be observed during fever and high temperature and 2-3 days after.
As an important part of treatment and recovery is nutrition. At the beginning and the development of the disease will have to use the diet in the form of dairy and plant foods, and after the transition in the period of pigmentation, you need to saturate the food with vitamins.
As for hygiene, they are shown at any period of the disease. Mucous membranes of the eye should be rinsed several times a day with warm, boiled water.
Depending on the symptoms in measles treatment, which can be antibiotics, if you have already joined infections that cause the complication.
However, universal, specific drugs for the treatment of measles still exists.